The Italian word of the moment is campanilismo.
Translated by BabelFish as "parochialism," campanilismo refers to local pride or patriotism, sometimes very local. If you ask somebody where she's from and she says "Boston" or "New York" that's not campanilismo. If she says, "Southie" or "Washington Heights" you've got a campanilista on your hands.
Campanilismo is derived from campanile, which is a church's bell tower like the 14th Century one pictured below in Florence, the work of Giotto.
Britannica suggests that the name sticks because it's from local boosters bragging that their bell tower is taller than the one in the next town over, but this piece from L'Italo Americano indicates that the campanile is a symbol of a locality, like a church is the symbol of its parish.